This is summary information as best we can find


The most common type of traumatic brain injury is called a Concussion. The word comes from the Latin concutere, which means “to shake violently.”

According to the CDC, in the US, between 2001 and 2009, an estimated 173,285 people under age 19 were treated in hospital emergency rooms for concussions related to sports and recreation activities.

Other causes include car and bicycle accidents, work-related injuries, falls, and fighting.


As seen in countless Saturday morning cartoons, a concussion is most often caused by a sudden direct blow or bump to the head.

The brain is made of soft tissue. It’s cushioned by spinal fluid and encased in the protective shell of the skull. When you sustain a concussion, the impact can jolt your brain. Sometimes, it literally causes it to move around in your head. Traumatic brain injuries can cause bruising, damage to the blood vessels, and injury to the nerves.

The result? Your brain doesn’t function normally. If you’ve suffered a concussion, vision may be disturbed, you may lose equilibrium, or you may fall unconscious. In short, the brain is confused. That’s why Bugs Bunny often saw stars.


Concussions can be tricky to diagnose. Though you may have a visible cut or bruise on your head, you can’t actually see a concussion. Signs may not appear for days or weeks after the injury. Some symptoms last for just seconds; others may linger.

Concussions are fairly common. Some estimates say a mild brain trauma is sustained every 21 seconds in the U.S. But it’s important to recognize the signs of a concussion so you can take the proper steps to treat the injury.

There are some common physical, mental, and emotional symptoms a person may display following a concussion. Any of these could be a sign of traumatic brain injury:

How you can help

Here are some “rules” that you might self-enforce for helping all people with disabilities

Understand the difference between equality and equity. 

Equality means that everyone gets the same, regardless of what would be optimal for them.

Equity means that everyone gets what would make the results of what they’re doing the same.

  1. Always treat people with disabilities as equals.  All people want to have friends, fun, and experience life to the maximum.  People with disabilities are no exception.  Never be afraid, skeptical, or embarrassed to approach someone with a disability.  People with disabilities have just as much fun!
  2. Always ask before you help.  People with disabilities have varying levels of independence.  Never assume someone with a disability has a low-level.  If someone looks like they’re struggling, ask before you help.  A person may welcome help, or they may ask that you let her be independent; but even if she looks like she’s struggling, she may just want to become more independent, which requires practice in everyday situations.
  3. Never assume someone does or does not have a disability.  Everyone is different.  Sometimes, people with disabilities may act, feel, or think differently than you.  Don’t assume that for this reason someone has a disability, simply treat him/her as an individual because all people should be treated equally.
  4. Do not stare.  Sometimes it is an eye-opening experience to see someone with a disability in public.  However, people with disabilities have lives just like everyone else.  You are certainly allowed to look, but do not stare at a person with a disability.  Simply view them the way you view others.
  5. Respect and understand confidentiality.  People with disabilities have a right to privacy.  They are not obligated to tell you about their disability.  If someone does tell you about his/her disability, do not assume that he/she is comfortable with you telling other people about his/her disability.  Always ask permission to discuss the disability before you do it.

My scooters

I can’t drive (well, legally that is), but thanks to the benefits that I’ve got, because I was working for the government, what I’m able to get is pretty awesome. I’ve got 2 scooters, because of what I need them for. The first, and most significant, factor that needs to be addressed is the weather. We live in Canada, so snow’s an issue. However, while OC Transpo buses are accessible, getting on the bus means that I’m required to take a tight-90 degree turn, which dramatically limits what I can use.

This is my "not deep snow" scooter. It's a lot like what it looks - not intended for use in snow. I've have to use it in snow, because my big one arrived with an error! However, it's not meant to be used in the snow! If the snow was deeper than about 1" it could have gotten stuck! The first time I learned that, I didn't see it before I'd advanced, and got stuck! Thankfully, even though I was stuck, within a few minutes someone saw me, and immediately came to help. After that, If I see that on the road ahead of me is snow, I avoid it.
Here's what the manufacturer says about it:

  • CTS Suspension (Comfort-Trac front and rear suspension) provides a smooth, comfortable ride over varied terrain

  • Feather-touch disassembly easily disassembles into 5 lightweight pieces for transport and storage

  • 300 lb. weight capacity

  • Delta Tiller with ergonomic wraparound handles lets you operate the scooter with one hand and rest your wrist

  • A standard front basket provides storage

  • Charger port located on the tiller lets you conveniently charge your scooter

  • The dual voltage charger permits charging the battery pack on-board or off-board for added convenience

  • Pride’s exclusive black, non-scuffing tires

  • Standard LED lighting

  • Includes two sets of easily changeable, red and blue colored shrouds

This is my 4-season scooter, that I can take anytime, to anywhere.
Granted that as it doesn't have a roof, it shouldn't be taken in the rain, but I was told that if the steering wheel electronics are covered, it's able to go anywhere, anytime.
Rugged and built to last, the Wrangler is everything I want in an outdoor scooter! Equipped with front and rear suspension (suspension - really? Yup, and it's awesome) this aggressive scooter is designed for cruising on walking trails or driving around. Enjoy total visibility with complete LED lighting. With a user-friendly console and dual hydraulic brakes for added safety, the Wrangler is the perfect way to embrace life in the great outdoors!

And, get this - it's top speed is ~20 km/h

  • CTS Suspension includes adjustable shocks for greater comfort

  • User friendly LED console displays time, temperature, miles driven, and trips taken

  • Adjustable delta tiller with ergonomic, wraparound handles

  • USB charger built into the tiller for convenient charging of smart phones and portable devices

  • Durable and stylish rear bumper

  • Easily accessible tie-down points (for transport of unoccupied scooter)

  • Full LED lighting package includes headlights, hazard lights, rear backup sensor LED lights and directional signals

Here's some visual evidence as to the difference. They say size isn't everything, but with respect to scooters in the snow, it matters. Check out the size differential between the two wheels.
Yes, being disabled sucks (when comparing to how I was), but with both the realization that I'd had (that while the past was cool, it's gone) and looking forward with what I'm building, it's awesome. And, thanks to the fact that I worked for the government, and was awarded a generous settlement, though I lost a cool job, I'm not paid less. So, the financial stress isn't here. As I'd said above, while it's not-good that they don't have a roof, with an umbrella, and the electronics are covered, I can go out in the rain. Not hard, but drizzles, but it's ok.